Trainings for LEAs

I do offer seminars and training to Law Enforcement Agencies on Bitcoin, Blockchain, Blockchain 2.0, Blockchain and IoT, and related law enforcement investigations techniques. Below a list of the 10 more requested sessions.




Session 1: Bitcoin Basics

  • What is Bitcoin,
  • How Bitcoin is born, what problems needed to solve,
  • What people can buy with bitcoin today,
  • How consumers get started with Bitcoin,
  • Is Bitcoin better or worse than cash?
  • Investigating crimes involving cash vs crimes involving bitcoin.

Session 2: Peer-to-peer decentralised networks

  • Uses of P2P networks: Skype, Torrent, Botnets, etc,
  • No central control system,
  • Distributed content,
  • Majority consensus,
  • P2P protocol and software structure,
  • Investigating data transfer in P2P networks.

Session 3: Cryptography

  • Basics of cryptography,
  • Private and public keys,
  • Digital identities and digital signatures,
  • Offline encryption and encrypted data broadcasting,
  • Shifting the paradigm of data access,
  • What is homomorphic encryption,
  • How LEOs should behave when meeting with encrypted data.

Session 4: TOR and Onion Routing

  • TOR, what it is and how it works,
  • What services are running in the TOR network,
  • Bitcoin spent in the Dark Web,
  • Blockchain nodes in TOR,
  • Analysing data traffic in TOR networks,
  • Why LEAS should run TOR exit and entry nodes.

Session 5: Bitcoin Infrastructure

  • What is a blockchain,
  • Basic concepts on blockchain structure,
  • Different type of blockchains,
  • Various ways to access a blockchain,
  • Mining blocks vs forging blocks (PoW vs PoS),
  • Why blocks are valid timestamps,
  • Why LEAS should run blockchain nodes.

Session 6: The blockchain

  • Deep overview of a blockchain structure,
  • Combining a chain of data blocks with P2P networks, cryptography, and a TOR network,
  • Transaction structure and logic,
  • P2P broadcasting of a transaction,
  • Node transaction validation and majority consensus,
  • Smart contracts and phasing transactions,
  • Extracting logic of a blockchain pre-set deals during an investigation.

Session 7: Blockchain 2.0

  • What is a blockchain 2.0 and how it differs from the bitcoin one,
  • Covering tracks and keeping anonymity in Blockchain 2.0,
  • Benefits for the organised crime in using blockchain systems,  
  • Example of crimes facilitated by a blockchain 2.0 system,
  • Reputation records, online personas, and digital identities,
  • Infiltrating a criminal organization in the blockchain.

Session 8: IoT + Blockchain (Blockchain 3.0)

  • Internet of Things and the Blockchain 3.0 overview,
  • Use of private keys (digital identities) in hardware devices,
  • Proof of existence of hardware generated data,
  • Examples of IoT solutions to monitor or trigger events,
  • Automated transactions triggered by IoT on the blockchain,
  • How organised crime can use IoT and Blockchain.

Session 9: Investigations involving a blockchain

  • What to look for during searches,
  • Difference between permanent data and data that change ownership,
  • How to collect blockchain related collateral data during an investigation,
  • Confiscating values (currencies, assets, tokens, etc),
  • Evaluating encrypted data and its metadata,
  • Data forensic when crypto is involved, best practices by a technical point of view,
  • More tips and tricks for LEAs when dealing with blockchain 2.0 investigations.

Session 10: Laboratory workshop

  • A look at Nxt (live),
  • Analysing the structure of a node,
  • Analysing the data held in a node DB,
  • Analysing the software component of a node,
  • Sniffing transaction packet data,
  • Other blockchain technical hints and tips for LEOs.

Additional information

The training is aimed at technically prepared students. It focuses on the conceptual aspects of the topics listed in the 10 sessions above, and goes down to the technical aspects just enough to make sense of what is being explained. Each session can be complemented with a “hands on” class presented by another teacher, aiming to explore the theory just learned on a practical and technical level. For example trying cryptography on a computer rather than just relying on an explanation of it. “Hands on” classes can be applied to all 10 sessions or to a subset of consequent sessions.


Each session can be:
  • “compressed”, and last half day (4h),
  • “extended” and last a full day (4h + 4h).
Customised program options:
  • Sessions can be mixed in format (example: 6 compressed and 4 extended)
  • Sessions can be held also during weekends or outside office hours

Class size

An ideal class has 10 (max15) students equally prepared.